This information was taken from the book: Brain Facts available for download here.
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Cerebral cortex (top image). This part of the brain is divided
into four sections: the occipital lobe, the temporal lobe, the parietal
lobe, and the frontal lobe. Functions, such as vision, hearing, and
speech, are distributed in selected regions. Some regions are associated
with more than one function. Major internal structures (bottom image).
The (1) forebrain is credited with the highest intellectual functions —
thinking, planning, and problem-solving. The hippocampus is involved in
memory. The thalamus serves as a relay station for almost all the
information coming into the brain. Neurons in the hypothalamus serve as
relay stations for internal regulatory systems by monitoring information
coming in from the autonomic nervous system and commanding the body
through those nerves and the pituitary gland. On the upper surface of
the (2) midbrain are two pairs of small hills, colliculi, collections of
cells that relay specific sensory information from sense organs to the
brain. The (3) hindbrain consists of the pons and medulla oblongata,
which help control respiration and heart rhythms, and the cerebellum,
which helps control movement as well as cognitive processes that require